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We first review the basic phenomenology and pathophysiological theories of schizophrenia. These motivate the choice of a formal or computational framework within which to understand the symptoms and signs of schizophrenia; particularly, in terms of false beliefs or inference. This framework is the Bayesian brain. We will focus on the (neuromodulatory) encoding of uncertainty or precision within predictive coding implementations of active inference – to demonstrate computational approaches to the nature and pathogenesis of hallucinations and delusions.